The Urgency of Change Motivated by Climate Change

-The Urgency of Change Motivated by Climate Change

The Urgency of Change Motivated by Climate Change

Publish time: 2023-11-09
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When searching for natural ingredients for brewing, I am curious to know if those seemingly insignificant, even useless, parts of waste that are cut off and discarded have the opportunity to rebuild their value.

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Tze-Luen Lin, the spokesperson of the Executive Yuan.

 

By Xin-En Wu

 

  "Last year was particularly engaging for me. I was invited by the former Chairman of Taiwan Power Company(TPC), Wei-Fu Yang, to deliver a keynote speech at a senior executive meeting at Taipower. At that time, I was contemplating the concept of achieving net zero. We often discuss the goals for 2030 and 2050, yet they remain distant prospects for the future," narrated Tze-Luen Lin, now the spokesperson of the Executive Yuan.

  During that period, the subject matter proposed by Tze-Luen Lin for TPC was notably engaging, entitled "The Future's Future." "Upon observing related news and literature about future prospects, whether it pertains to energy outlooks or the trajectories of various industries, there exists a diverse gamut of discussions on multiple trends. Essentially, we can serve as mirrors, drawing from historical experiences to derive certain 'forecasts' for the current circumstances," stated Lin.

  Considering the evolution of human history much has revolved around anticipating the future, envisioning what it might hold, often entailing scenarios akin to those found in science fiction. "In 1992, the United Nations adopted the 'United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)' and ratified a greenhouse gas reduction plan. Last year in 2022, marked the 30th anniversary of this convention. Now, as we discuss the year 2050, another 30 years have come into focus," Tze-Luen Lin argues that 30 years precisely constitute what we commonly refer to as "a generation," underscoring that the decisions we make today are bound to impact both ourselves and the generations to come. Time slips away swiftly, and these decisions will undoubtedly profoundly influence not only individual career development but also the progress of nations and the very future of our planet.

  "We have reached an exceedingly urgent state. We are currently positioned at a pivotal juncture in history," remarked Lin. The sharp escalation in inflation has intensified the sense of urgency within the current circumstances, notably evident in the ever-rising cost of living. He emphasized that while these immediate concerns merit attention, it is imperative to recognize the potential long-term risks associated with climate change. The discourse surrounding climate-related risks, potential issues with climate policies, insufficiencies in climate action, and the amplification of tangible risks, such as the increasing frequency of extreme weather events, collectively present a series of formidable challenges."

  "It is worth noting that contemporary leaders from both political and economic realms have continuously stressed the presence of these risks. With further consideration of biodiversity factors, the urgency becomes even more pronounced," commented Lin.

 

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Beyond Technical Constraints: The Essence of Net Zero and the Urgency for Goal Attainment

  "Cessation of Net Zero issues is not solely a matter of technicalities," remarked Lin. Reflecting on the past, environmental concerns were often attributed to ecological engineering or natural sciences. "We do not refute the significance of these disciplines. Up to this point, all decisions concerning climate politics, environmental policies, and energy policies have been closely intertwined with the scientific evidence provided by the field of natural sciences. Therefore, organizations like the IPCC (reference 1) are necessary for UN climate negotiations to provide comprehensive scientific assessments. Nevertheless, our comprehension of policies and politics remains considerably inadequate."

  Furthermore, many decisions involve multifaceted initiatives, necessitating policy guidance, and such policy guidance necessitates financial support. Past practices typically accorded primacy to several dimensions, particularly technology. "Throughout human history, it is undeniable that certain pivotal scientific breakthroughs have indeed had far-reaching impacts. Substantial investments and technological support have ushered in further new developments, evidenced by numerous historical events. At this juncture, our situation is akin to the lunar landing missions a century ago or 50 to 60 years ago. Europe views the transition to renewable energy as another moon landing endeavor. We must foster an ambitious dream and cultivate a clear vision or objective (Dream Big)," emphasized Lin.

  Lin remarked, "Many often inquire about the meaning of 'Dream Big,' and many individuals find achieving net zero quite challenging. However, the present query should not be 'Is it feasible to accomplish?' nor 'In the event of a failure, what then?' Rather, it should revolve around 'how to succeed' and 'how to materialize.' We are all aware of the enormity of this undertaking, and being engrossed in this driving process, I have acquired profound understanding."

  Since 2005, Tze-Luen Lin has been actively engaged in the United Nations climate conferences. From the rhythm of international issues and developmental processes, he has observed several trends, including the intensification of crises and the acceleration of transitions. For instance, the European Union proposed 'European Union's 20-20-20 Targets' for 2020 in 2008. It is now evident that the timeline for achieving these goals has been compressed, and the pace has been hastened. Taiwan currently stands at a crucial turning point.

  "We are not a member state of the United Nations, and a disparity exists between our sensitivity and urgency toward this issue and the international community. Consequently, we feel a sense of unease and a pressing need to catch up. The climate risks faced by Taiwan are no less significant than those confronted by other nations. Numerous international reports have identified Taiwan as a country highly at risk from climate change, encompassing our perennial encounters with typhoons and water-related issues. However, we seem to have consistently lacked that sense of urgency and immediacy within the international climate framework," Lin emphasized.

  Over the years, Lin has been contemplating how Taiwan can effectively address the intricacies of climate change through national-level initiatives. Amidst the global discourse on climate change adaptation, energy emerges as the foremost and highly scrutinized area, requiring extensive inter-departmental communication.

Establishment of Cross-field Communication Platform

  Since 2010, Lin has been engaged in local community exchanges related to the offshore wind industry at that time. "At the time, we were fully aware of the significance of offshore wind power. However, getting started was challenging, as Taiwan had no foundation in 2010. During that period, I directly immersed myself in the local context, overseeing tasks related to interface communication," he stated.

  Lin's early research included the exploration of deliberative democracy, which fundamentally delves into issues of citizen participation in public policy decision-making. Consequently, he recognizes the significance of enabling the public to have a voice in various policy resolutions. "Decision-makers should incorporate public opinion as early as possible to ensure a more comprehensive consideration of subsequent decisions. This also aligns with the contemporary discourse on stakeholder communication, which is crucial both in business and public policy," explained Lin.

  During that period, Lin actively participated in several social communication and civic engagement initiatives. "In the initial phase of the National Energy Program (NEP), there was a strong emphasis on technological advancements. However, in the second phase, the government acknowledged that the progress of energy initiatives and policy implementations entailed more than just technical complexities; societal dynamics also played a pivotal role. Consequently, the government formed a team of legal, social, and humanistic experts to address these issues. I was appointed as the chief coordinator for one of these projects, entrusted with the responsibility of managing social communication, including fostering communication within local communities and coordinating responses to protests."

  Lin is responsible for handling social communications in areas such as Miaoli, Changhua, and Yunlin and initiated numerous exchanges with local fishermen, fishery associations, and many Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) during the initial phases of the project. "I still recall organizing numerous workshops back then, inviting various leading development entities, including friends from Taiwan Power Company, to participate. At that time, my friends also expressed gratitude for these activities, as they provided an opportunity to meet specific individuals. We knew many relevant individuals visited the area but could not meet them. Some entered the local community but were reluctant to engage with the locals, possibly due to concerns about being challenged.

  Moreover, some locals perceived these development authorities as merely making superficial visits, given the lack of trust between the community and these development entities. Therefore, we gradually established a third-party platform from the outset, enabling stakeholders with vested interests to engage in discussions under relatively less direct pressure. I established several such platforms at that time, facilitating meetings and initiating discussions," highlighted Lin.

  Lin posits that joining a communication platform doesn't obligate participants to utter a definitive "yes." Instead, it prioritizes ensuring all involved parties have acquired comprehensive information before making decisions. This stands as a pivotal principle underpinning the platform's establishment. "One can still ultimately opt to say 'no,' but it is advisable to listen to other potential viewpoints and gather opinions from everyone before making a decision. The act of declining is undemanding, yet if we all readily decline, we risk forfeiting numerous opportunities and potential for local community development. Everyone shares the aspiration of steering the community towards a better trajectory. Through the platform's functioning, we aim to stimulate our community members to ponder whether there might be viable local development prospects in offshore wind energy and renewable resources," articulated Lin.

  Numerous international companies have entered the Taiwan market following the promotion of the offshore wind industry policy. Lin has observed specific disparities in the perspectives of foreign and Taiwanese engineers. "In Taiwan, a considerable number of engineers tend to view their responsibilities as limited to executing engineering or technical tasks, leaving social aspects to the communication teams. However, the perspective of foreign engineers is particularly intriguing. They believe that while the division of labor is permissible, both management and technical personnel must be capable of addressing social risks and engaging in communication; this is part of their responsibility and training. This concept has deeply inspired me; engineers must solve technical problems learn to interpret language and initiate 'communication.' As people often seek advice from technical experts, these experts need to possess social communication capabilities and mindset."

  From these experiences, it can be observed that for the development of new energy and technologies, the social communication of stakeholders plays a crucial bridging role. It indeed necessitates a third-party platform for facilitating communication. A significant milestone was the establishment of the Executive Yuan's Office of Energy and Carbon Reduction in 2016.

Energy Matters: Office of Energy and Carbon Reduction

  Energy issues involve various aspects, such as land use and environmental protection. The Department of Energy, under the Ministry of Economic Affairs, finds itself relatively disadvantaged in these matters, as its proposals may not necessarily garner the recognition of the Environmental Protection Administration or other departments. For instance, air pollution is a cross-field issue that poses numerous challenges. Progress will likely be impeded without an interdepartmental platform to address these concerns. This necessity underscores the significance of establishing the Office of Energy and Carbon Reduction.

  "Our primary mission is to facilitate interdepartmental communication concerning the energy transition objectives for 2030 and 2050, including carbon reduction initiatives. The framework was meticulously designed with the active involvement of two Ministers without Portfolio and three other ministers convening jointly. Such a configuration is rarely observed within the government, emphasizing the imperative for the collaboration of five minister-level officials to ensure effective coordination. Our composition also comprehensively integrates deputy ministers from relevant departments."

  It is evident that industrial progress is unattainable without inter-departmental cooperation, as every problem tends to give rise to further complications. Lin further shares an example of inter-agency communication in offshore wind energy. "I distinctly recall the most striking discussion concerning submarine cables. It was undeniably a vexing issue. I remember the myriad regulations involved at that time, which were exceedingly complex, and the overseeing authorities and procedures were not entirely clear. Envision a situation where multiple developers are developing in different blocks, each endeavoring to lay their own cable. This would result in a chaotic coastline, potentially entailing concerns about ecology and resident apprehensions. It would pose a significant burden on the companies and could potentially damage the coastline. Nevertheless, through concerted efforts, we eventually established The North-South Corridor (NSC) and a shared cable solution."

  Lin further shared that Taiwan previously encountered a communication issue with an undersea cable, the Taiwan-Penghu Submarine Cable. "The Taiwan-Penghu Submarine Cable was delayed for almost 10 years, and it was not until the year before last that it was finally completed. We also devoted considerable effort to negotiating the interfaces. It might seem easy to lay a cable from Penghu to Taiwan, but it just couldn't come up when the cable was about to reach the shore. Sometimes, it was the issue of parallel connection points and other times; it was the fact that the landing point would pass through densely populated areas like Kouhu Township in Yunlin County. I made several trips to the rural areas, and Taiwan Power Company also made tremendous efforts then. Eventually, this long-delayed submarine cable was put into use. This cable is crucial for Penghu's solar and renewable energy facilities. With the completion of the undersea cable, Penghu can now have a good balance with the main island, which greatly assists in stabilizing the power grid system."

  This very cable also prompted Lin to realize that establishing just one submarine cable could take a minimum of 10 years of communication, thus making him grasp the formidable nature of each issue. This is because it entails not only the aspect of communication but also serves as feedback for policy design and implementation.

 

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Cross-Departmental Coordination in Solar Photovoltaics

  In the cross-departmental role of the Energy Bureau, photovoltaic energy is also a pivotal domain. Lin discussed that initially, the Energy Bureau obtained some land data from the Council of Agriculture that was not conducive to agricultural cultivation, comprising approximately 20,000 hectares (reference 2). "According to the Energy Bureau's vision, is it feasible to directly utilize this land for the development of solar energy, given that it is no longer suitable for agricultural purposes?" remarked Tze-Luen Lin.

  Based on the data, it was tentatively estimated that these lands could accommodate a photovoltaic capacity of 20GW. However, conducting assessments on each individual plot of land on-site is practically unfeasible. Consequently, after publicly announcing these unfavorable arable lands, many solar energy operators scrutinized the situation. It was discovered that some of these lands raised concerns about ecological conservation and bird habitats. Although these lands were not originally designated as sensitive areas, their prolonged disuse has transformed them into habitats for numerous bird species and wildlife.

  "My enduring engagement in promoting environmental issues has fostered strong partnerships with various environmental organizations. Their swift response highlighted the prevalence of a similar situation in multiple regions. Consequently, the government promptly convened a meeting and invited experts for assessment. We also sought the assistance of specialists from the Taiwan Biodiversity Research Institute, renowned for their profound understanding of these species. After careful consideration, it was decided to halt development in the contentious areas temporarily."

  According to Lin, the assessment eventually revealed that the land suitable for immediate development had been significantly reduced to a minimal proportion, representing less than a tenth of the initially anticipated development capacity.

  Later, the promotion of photovoltaics shifted towards another direction, specifically Roof PV Systems. "Due to land constraints and adjustments in policy direction, we are witnessing a comparatively rapid surge in Roof PV Systems, contrary to what was initially expected. Currently, over seventy percent of Taiwan's photovoltaic installed capacity comprises Roof PV Systems, while Ground-mounted PV Systems only constitute twenty percent. Industry players are actively seeking suitable sites, driven by the stable returns of the Feed-in Tariff," emphasized Lin.

  In the early stages, when the regulations were not clearly defined, some businesses also encountered unsuitable agricultural land. Lin emphasized that Taiwan's policy has consistently aimed to protect land designated for agricultural cultivation. However, these unsuitable cultivation areas are typically located in remote regions where there was previously no infrastructure for cables or wires. This brought about another issue: installing cables and substations would result in additional costs. The discussion on this matter was prolonged for some time. Consequently, solar photovoltaic energy primarily focused on rooftop installations, while citizen power plants received active support from non-governmental environmental organizations.

  Based on the discussions and communications at the interface of various social and energy sectors, the Office of Energy and Carbon Reduction initiated the "Energy White Paper" project in 2017. (reference 3)

 

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  "Considering the significance of energy transition, we aimed to design a system of citizen participation. With reference to the structure of Germany's transition white paper and the annual review process, we gained the support of former Premier Chuan Lin. The Bureau of Energy within the Ministry of Economic Affairs was tasked with coordinating the involvement of pertinent experts and industry stakeholders," shared Lin.

  During that period, the Bureau of Energy invited 60 members, dividing them into 5 groups, each including representatives from official bodies and non-governmental entities. For Lin, this was an invaluable experience.

  Throughout the entire process, multiple turning points and fluctuations, coupled with the intricacy of the issues, resulted in an extended duration of discussions. Particularly between 2017 and 2018, political events such as elections and referendums, as well as the global pandemic in 2020, led to ongoing revisions of the white paper. These changes and delays have somewhat influenced the execution of policies. The interruptions in the global supply chain, stemming from the pandemic, have also contributed to the postponement of advancements in green energy.

  Reflecting on that time, Lin believed that due to Taiwan's effective control of the pandemic, "We were still able to continue advancing many energy transition initiatives in 2020. The election results at the time also allowed related policies to persist. If we had waited another year, these achievements would not have manifested as rapidly as they have now. These examples all demonstrate the crucial importance of incremental progress in energy transition," he remarked.

  According to Lin, Taiwan is currently undergoing a process of paradigm transition. Future evaluations of renewable energy will no longer be limited to examining installed capacity but will encompass the incorporation of technological and social factors. This transformation signifies that traditional methods for calculating power systems are no longer viable and necessitates the adoption of a new dispatching model. It can be said that the net zero goal represents a process of paradigm transformation.

  "In the process of energy transition, we have encountered numerous moments of contemplation. Initially, certain experts harbored reservations about the potential of renewable energy. They expressed concerns that its significant integration could potentially disrupt the stability of the power grid, reflecting their apprehensions about maintaining grid stability. Nevertheless, it is imperative to acknowledge that the future of energy development must embrace a harmonious coexistence with nature, transcending dependence on fossil fuels. The widespread adoption of renewable energy also serves the purpose of fortifying energy autonomy and security," articulated Lin.

  In this transitional phase, humanity is also confronted with significant changes brought about by the large-scale integration of renewable energy. What Taiwan requires now extends beyond the mere expansion of renewable energy capacities to encompass an all-encompassing societal transformation.

  According to Lin, by 2050, approximately 60% to 70% of countries globally are expected to move towards net zer0 emissions. Despite the ongoing efforts of RE100, scholars and experts worldwide are actively engaging in relevant research. Certain studies evaluate Taiwan's potential to realize a 100% utilization of renewable energy. There remain numerous discussions on how to expedite and broaden this process. Nevertheless, it is undeniable that major nations across the globe are dedicated to resolving challenges encountered during the transition.

 

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Net Zero Transition Depends on Action and the Engagement of the Younger Generation

  Looking back to around the year 2020, several significant events unfolded globally against the backdrop of achieving net zero. Firstly, there was an acceleration in the global climate political agenda: The UN's 2018 report evaluating a global 1.5°C temperature rise spurred nations, such as the UK, with its historical ties to the Industrial Revolution, to pledge their commitment to a green industrial revolution and the attainment of net zero objectives.

  These pioneering nations, playing critical roles in global climate politics, include the UK, known as the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution and the host country for COP26 (Conference of the Parties 26). By the end of 2021, the United Nations effectively mobilized nearly 130 countries in declaring their aspirations for achieving net zer0 goals, with Taiwan itself announcing a net zer0 target for 2050 during the same year.

  According to Lin, Taiwan encounters several significant challenges in the global net zer0 transition process. Primarily, the expansion of renewable energy has become pivotal in the realm of decarbonized energy. Secondly, there is a necessity to recalibrate industrial energy efficiency, emphasizing the importance of adjustments in both demand-side and process modifications to elevate energy efficacy.

  Additionally, the electrification debate within the transportation sector, coupled with the imperative development and enhancement of pertinent infrastructure, holds paramount significance.

  The deployment of Negative Emissions Technologies (NET), encompassing natural or artificial means of carbon sequestration or offsetting, is equally critical. Finally, Taiwan needs to establish a comprehensive climate governance framework to confront these challenges, entailing regulatory formulation, promotion of green finance, facilitation of international collaboration, Just Transition, and active public engagement.

  These elements are indispensable and lay the foundation for Taiwan's current net zer0 pathway: Two major governance foundations, four major transformations, and 12 Key Strategies. (reference 4)

   "These 12 Key Strategies are akin to the twelve books one must thoroughly study for an exam. Their full implementation is crucial for achieving net zer0," as emphasized by Tze-Luen Lin.

  Develop action plans in key areas expected to grow under energy, industrial, and lifestyle transition policies, to achieve the goal of net zero transformation.

  Energy, among these strategies, occupies five key positions, spanning the realms of energy conservation and the electricity network. Energy efficiency has long been considered a crucial cornerstone and an exceptional investment. Meanwhile, in discussions concerning energy innovation, the significance of smart grids and energy storage cannot be disregarded. Within these realms, numerous novel business models are experiencing robust development.

  "From data analysis, we have already witnessed the transformation of the power system's structure with the emergence of new forms of power, such as energy storage. Therefore, we need to reconsider the way we manage and schedule electricity, rather than relying solely on the mindset of traditional power plants.

  There are many other appliances and services in the future that hold similar potential for development. For instance, electric vehicle batteries can store power during off-peak hours and then feed it back into the power system, enabling vehicles to contribute to the power grid. Similar innovations are profoundly altering the operational modes of the power system. We must explore new methods of management and scheduling, rather than adhering to traditional notions of power management. New business models and paradigm shifts are constantly evolving," shared Lin.

 

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  In the past, the global reliance on fossil fuels as the cornerstone of power infrastructure is gradually shifting. Future trends in power system investments will emphasize flexibility and resilience to a greater extent. For ordinary enterprises, investing in equipment solely to manage peak demands, followed by prolonged idle periods, proves to be an inefficient strategy.

  This has led to the emergence of electricity trading markets, enabling consumers to engage in demand response and virtual power plant models, effectively converting consumers into energy producers. This shift is rapidly unfolding and has become a pivotal trend for the future.

  Lin firmly believes that the future energy system will bring about greater flexibility and possibilities for humanity, simultaneously altering everyone's approach to energy utilization and management.

  "In Taiwan, we have witnessed the emergence of numerous new business models, closely linked to the future energy transition and net zer0 goals. While there might be some societal debates and deliberations during the transition from conventional to innovative models, this transitional phase is imperative. If we are confident in the direction we are taking, it is imperative to remain resolute. Tensions and conflicts may exist between the old and the new models, and some individuals may not comprehend that the world is moving towards a new direction, but these changes are already unfolding in reality," he stated.

  The global conversation currently revolves around significant transformations such as decentralization and digitization. These transformations encompass multiple dimensions and call for the resolution of numerous critical issues.

  "A survey conducted last year indicated that less than 30% of Taiwan's population is aware of the concept of net zer0 transition, despite considerable media coverage. Surprisingly, the general public seems indifferent to these issues, except for the classic sporting events," quipped Lin.

  Despite there are still perceived net zer0 issues as unrelated to them, many individuals fail to recognize the far-reaching impact the net zero transition has already had on their lives. He emphasized that what is urgently required is not solely a shift in mindset but also collective action across generations.

  "The International Energy Agency (IEA) has previously released a report indicating that individuals born in the 1950s have a lifetime carbon emission budget of approximately 350 tonnes. In contrast, for children born in recent years, such as around 2020, their remaining carbon emission budget is only about 34 tonnes, equivalent to one-tenth of the earlier generation. In considering the achievement of net zer0 scenarios, the IEA has derived these data. In other words, we have already used up the carbon emissions budget for the next generation." stated Lin

  This also serves as a reminder to many about why achieving net zero represents a shared crisis across generations, as the intergenerational carbon quota dilemma has triggered conflicts concerning equitable transitions.

  Undoubtedly, in discussing the intergenerational issues of 2050, it is imperative to actively encourage the involvement and discourse of the younger generation. However, the current scenario suggests that the level of concern among Taiwan's youth remains inadequate. Lin believes that our generation bears the responsibility to provide more opportunities, inspiring the younger generation to become more actively engaged with this issue.

 

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Reverting to Nature Reconnecting with Essence

  "In 2019, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to three scientists who invented the lithium-ion battery. At that time, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences described their contribution to the world as 'They created a rechargeable world.' (reference 5) One particular phrase that left a deep impression on me was 'Making possible a fossil fuel-free society.' This indicated that the Nobel Prize committee had envisioned what the world would be like in the future. They held a worldview in their minds. I instantly felt a sense of excitement. Isn't this exactly what we are concerned about now? The development of energy storage and new types of batteries, combined with the use of renewable energy, could potentially create numerous new applications. The advancement of human civilization inherently requires adherence to the laws of nature." stated Lin.

  Lin regards photosynthesis as a highly noteworthy natural solution, particularly in discussions concerning carbon reduction. In the future, the focus should be more on symbiosis with nature and returning to fundamentals.

  "Light and wind are gifts from nature; it's just a matter of whether humans understand how to store them. If we look at the example of leaves, even in strong sunlight, while an ordinary person might become dehydrated in less than 30 minutes just standing in the sun, leaves can endure and remain lush green all day. This is the mechanism of nature; in fact, nature has already provided us with the solution," stated Lin.

  Similar to how children attempt to uncover the functioning of the natural world during their early years, nature has already provided the answers. "I have always believed that nature harbors a wealth of wisdom that can aid us in confronting the current challenges in climate and energy. What we need is some creativity and a touch of imagination; perhaps this is the next question that awaits consideration. Indeed, our paradigm is shifting, and so is our system. We can no longer approach present issues with past modes of thinking because the future has already changed," remarked Lin.

 


Reference:
1. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an international scientific body established by the United Nations in 1988. Its primary mission is to assess scientific knowledge on climate change, its impacts, and possible adaptation and mitigation strategies. Comprised of thousands of climate scientists, researchers, and experts worldwide, the IPCC plays a crucial role in rigorously reviewing and synthesizing existing research on various aspects of climate change, from its underlying physical science to its socio-economic and environmental implications. These scientific findings are compiled into assessment reports, offering a comprehensive overview of the climate situation, future projections, and potential pathways for addressing the challenges posed by climate change. These assessment reports are released periodically, the most recent being the Sixth Assessment Report (AR6), released in batches between 2021 and 2022. The IPCC's assessment reports are paramount to governments, policymakers, businesses, and organizations worldwide.

2. The Council of Agriculture conducted an assessment in 2014 and announced in 2015 that tens of thousands of hectares of land in Taiwan are unsuitable for agricultural cultivation. These areas may suffer from issues such as subsidence or excessive sand and gravel content in the soil.


3. Addressing the worldwide movement towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions and embracing the pursuit of a net zer0 transition, the government initiated efforts in 2017. It actively encouraged dialogue and collaboration among the private sector, government agencies, educational institutions, and the broader community. By harnessing the collective social momentum through citizen engagement and collaborative endeavors, the Executive Yuan officially sanctioned the "Energy White Paper" on November 18, 2020, establishing a novel model for public discourse on energy policies in Taiwan.

4. "Taiwan's Pathway to Net zer0 Emissions in 2050" is based on the four major transformations of "energy, industry, life, and society" and the two major governance foundations of "technology research and development" and "climate legislation", and supplemented by "12 Key Strategies".

5. "They created a rechargeable world." The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced that the 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry would be awarded to John B. Goodenough, a German-born American, M. Stanley Whittingham from the United Kingdom, and Akira Yoshino from Japan, in recognition of their contributions to the development of the lithium-ion battery.

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